chorus

Table of Contents

Tempo
Dynamics
Style
Miscellaneous

Tempo

Slow

  • grave - very slow, serious
  • largo - broad, stately
  • lento - slow
  • adagio - slow, tranquil

Moderate

  • andante - moving; literally, "walking"
  • moderato - moderately fast

Fast

  • allegro - fast; literally, "cheerful"
  • allegretto - fast; literally, "cheerful"
  • vivace - very fast
  • presto - very, very fast
  • prestissimo - as fast as possible

Acceleration

  • accelerando - with increasing rapidity
  • stringendo - pressing, becoming faster
  • doppio movimento - twice as fast
  • piu mosso - at a faster speed
  • piu moto or veloce - at a faster speed

Decreasing Speed

  • rallentando - gradually slower
  • ritardando - gradually slower
  • allargando - gradually slower
  • ritenuto - held back, slowed down
  • meno mosso - steady, but slower than before
  • meno moto - steady, but slower than before
  • morendo - dying, fading away

Return to Original Tempo

  • a tempo - resume previous tempo
  • tempo primo - go back to original tempo

Continue Into New Section

  • segue - continue into new section, do not stop
  • l'istesso tempo - continue at the same tempo

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Dynamics

  • pianississimo - very, very soft
  • pianissimo - very soft
  • piano - soft
  • mezzo piano - medium soft
  • mezzo forte - medium loud
  • forte - loud
  • fortissimo - very loud
  • fortississimo - very, very loud
  • forte-piano - accent strongly, diminishing immediately to piano
  • crescendo - gradually louder
  • decrescendo or diminuendo - gradually softer

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Style

  • agitato - restless, agitated
  • amoroso - affectionately
  • animato - with spirit
  • brilliante - bright-sparkling
  • delicato - delicately
  • deciso - decided, with firmness
  • dolce - softly, sweetly
  • doloroso - sorrowfully
  • furioso - furiously
  • grandioso - pompous, majestic
  • grazioso - in a graceful way
  • legato - smoothly, opposite of staccato
  • Maestoso - majestic, stately
  • marcato - detached and accented
  • passionato - with fervor
  • pesante - heavily, emphatically
  • risoluto - with bold, energetic resolve
  • scherzando - playfully
  • sostenuto - sustained, prolonged
  • sotto voce - in a quiet, subdued tone
  • spirito - with spirit
  • staccato - detached, separate
  • tranquillo - peacefully, calmly
  • violento - with violence
  • vivo - with life and animation
  • volante - flyingly
  • vivace - briskly, brightly

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Miscellanous

  • 8va - play one octave higher or lower than written notes
  • a2 or a due - together, both performers play
  • accent - play a note with added stress
  • ala - in the style of
  • coda - a closing section
  • con - with
  • poco a poco - little by little
  • con sordino - with mute
  • da capo or (D.C) - go back to the beginning
  • da capo al fine - go back to the beginning, play to the fine
  • dal Segno - go back to the sign
  • divisi - divided for separate instruments
  • fine - the end
  • glissando - slurred smoothly in a gliding manner
  • mezzo - half-moderately
  • molto - much, very
  • mosso - motion, movement
  • moto primo - same as at first
  • obbligato - counter melody
  • opus - a work
  • piu - more
  • poco or un poco - a little
  • poco a poco - little by little
  • precipitando - speedily, hurridly
  • senza - without
  • sforzando - with sudden emphasis
  • simile - the same
  • solo - for one performer
  • stretto or stretta - increase of speed
  • subito - suddenly
  • super - above
  • tacet - do not play
  • tempo - rate of speed
  • tempo di valse - in waltz time
  • tenuto - held for full value
  • trio - for three performers
  • triplet - a group of three notes
  • tutti - all the instruments
  • va crescendo - continue increasing

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Special thanks to Joe Wagner for assembling this list.

© St. Louis Metro Singers
P.O. Box 190039 • St. Louis, MO 63119-6039 • 314.995.1262


Last Update 11/21/2005